actual claims assert that a condition has, does, or will exist. These claim are called factual claims since they are supported (are proven) by factual, verifiable information such as statistics, specific examples, and personal testimony (also called anecdotes). Many factual claims do not make interesting claims because they are too easily verified by our senses.
- The current temperature is above 0° Fahrenheit.
Others are just too familiar from our life experiences so we tend not to question them.
- Sunshine is warm.
ther facts, such as those in reference books, like dictionaries and encyclopedias, in textbooks, or in scholarly materials, we can not easily verify ourselves, but we tend to treat them as facts because we trust the source.
till everyday we find factual claims that have not been verified. We often find that we make assertions that can be verified, but we need to collect, verify, and present the evidence. For example, if I were to assert
- Most students at the College of DuPage major in business.
you should expect of me that I present some evidence to support the claim. The evidence you would accept include survey results, anecdotal stories, etc.
ost claims, including factual claims, are supported by a combination of evidence and reasoning. In sentences (4) and (5) below, for example, we see the claim the first clause in each example is supported by both experimental evidence my attempts to use the lights and horn and reasoning based on my prior knowledge of electrical systems.
- My car's battery must be dead since the car will not start and the the lights and horn do not work either.
- My car's battery must be alright even though the car won't start; the lights and the horn still work.
n the essay on the right, a very famous report criticizing American education, the U.S. Department of Education under the Reagan administration made a very dramatic factual claim in the very first sentence: "Our Nation is at risk." The body of the report goes on to present the evidence for its case; note especially the section subtitled "Indicators of the Risk." In that section you can read many alarming statistics about how our educational has failed the nation. You can read survey results and demographic projections describing were the future economy is headed and why this nation is unprepared to face the future.
he report is based on assumptions too, and you can see those in many sections of this report. There is an abiding faith, for instance, that education can cure America's ills and secure its future.
hen reading and evaluating a factual claim such as the one you see on the right, you must consider several factors. Do(es) the writer(s) present sufficient and reliable data? Do(es) the writer(s) use reliable authorities? Do(es) the writer(s) confuse facts with inferences?
Sufficient and Reliable Data
he amount and kind of data needed to support a claim depends on the subject and the audience. If for example you were writing a brochure explaining AIDS to two different groups, say second graders, ages 7-8, and adults, you would change almost every aspect of your information. You would change language, certainly, because you might be able to use words and phrases like virus, intravenous needles, and unprotected sex with an adult audience but never with an audience of second graders. Since second graders would not understand the terms, you would most likely look for simpler synonyms.
our information delivery would change too: you probably would use fewer examples less graphically, less specifically with the younger audience, but you would use many more examples of greater specific detail with the adult audience.
udience is the crucial concern here. You need enough examples of the right kind to sway the audience. Some rhetoricians, in fact, argue that for the good writer, audience controls everything s/he does language use, number of details, kind of details, and arrangement of details.
he importance of reliable authorities can not be understressed. It is conceivable to find someone with some kind of credentials who will say just about anything. For example, despite a mountain of evidence, some people (including "well educated" academics) are holocaust deniers. So if it is possible to find someone who will challenge a claim, the next step should be to examine the credentials and the biases of the authority. All of this is part of the readers'/writers' need to build ethical appeal.
our own experience has probably taught you already that not all experts are trustworthy. You must read carefully and critically. Experts do make mistakes. For many people, religion and religious leaders are among the most trustworthy of sources on any issue. Yet history is littered with example of how a good thing can be used for the wrong reasons. Recent history gives us the example of Jim Baker. Not so recently we have the example of Copernicus.
n 1543, Copernicus proposed the idea that the Earth was only one of several planets which orbit the Sun in his landmark book De Revolutionibus Orbium Caelestium. The reaction from conservative religious quarters was slow in coming but devastating when it finally arrived. In 1616, Copernicus's book and all other books which affirmed the motion of the Earth were placed on the "Index of Prohibited Books" promulgated by the Catholic Church. Not until 1822 almost 300 years after the idea had first been suggested in Europe did the Church allow its members to read books which state that the Earth moves.
onservative Protestants, although they had a less effective mechanism for enforcement of orthodoxy than the Catholics, were no less vehement in their objection to Copernicus, but for a slightly different reason. Some believed, much more forcefully than the Catholics, that the Bible was the source of literal truth about the world, and the Bible contains passages such as Joshua 10:13, which proves that the Sun moves and not the Earth. Of course, by the nineteenth century, only the most dogmatically fundamentalist sects could still maintain faith in the immobility of the Earth. As Thomas Kuhn says in The Copernican Revolution: "During the century and a half following Galileo's death in 1642, a belief in the earth-centered universe was gradually transformed from an essential sign of sanity to an index, first, of inflexible conservatism, then of excessive parochialism, and finally of complete fanaticism."
eople do make mistakes. We are often slow to change our opinions. We must be forever seeking the truth and questioning our sources because of those two very human conditions.
Facts v. Inferences
e defined facts as statements that can be verified. Inferences are statements about the unknown based on the known. As careful, analytical, critical readers and writers, we want to be certain that we distinguish fact from inference. This is often difficult because inferences are built on upon facts, so we sometimes treat them as facts themselves. But inferences are not facts; they are interpretations of facts. For example, imagine a glass which has water in 50% of it. Some people describe that as "half full" and others say "half empty." Those are interpretations of the one fact.
nother example is a recent ABC television network's promotional ad. On an ironic twist of the usual claim, ABC's ad shows the viewers several families from around the world. There is a voice-over telling the viewer that Americans are the most productive, most efficient, and richest people on the planet. The voice then tells us that Americans also watch more television than other people. "Coincidence?" the announcer asks. The ABC network wants us to think that of this as a factual claim, but this really an inference. We infer that success and television viewing are related, but there are no facts to prove it. (Instead what we really have here is a logical fallacy of the kind called the post hoc fallacy.)
Definitions of Factual Essay Topics
The essay topics are categorized in various classes solely for its ease of subscribers. Informative article topics are all excellent for men and women who must learn more about the area of creative writing. Selecting the best suited composition topic is a step in the proper leadership with reference to composition writing. Generally, essay topics are chosen in line with the form of essay you wish to publish. These themes need factual info, in the place of personal expressions, which makes it simple to get a beginner to write. Most the topics employed for writing process essays are associated with professors. There are quite a few identifying topics that it is possible to use in writing process essays.
Rarely will somebody do nothing and ask God to tackle the issue in their opinion. It isn’t important if some one is religious, however, it can matter the way that it affects their own lives. It’s forced because when an individual chooses to stop the question afterward they truly are actually choosing never to develop into a religious individual (Nelson, 2009).
Factual Essay Topics Ideas
While the dilemma of forming unhealthy diet plan can majorly influence someone initially, furthermore, it make a difference to someoneas https://www.masterpapers.com eating customs for the remaining of their lifestyles. There’s then a requirement for theological beliefs if these moral demands aren’t met (Slater, 2008). Broadly speaking, there’s a demand for religion in somebody’s life. Sometimes certain things can’t be clarified, therefore there is a demand for an outside justification, which is God, to take care of unanswered question in some one’s life. Overall, it is irrelevant if you imagine in global climate shift or maybe not. What matters is if you feel that an increase in temperature will influence water supply, droughts, growth of plants, humankind’s capability to survive intense amounts of heat, etc., etc..
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A systematic approach is essential to compose a process essay. An operation analysis essay would perhaps function as optimal/optimally explanation for just about any reader that wants to understand that a specific procedure or perhaps the way to do some thing. It’s the most important measure to compose an fantastic dissertation.
You can be as creative as you want to be, as long as your essay conveys the perfect info to your reader. For example, it’s not a fantastic idea to compose an argumentative essay on an issue like rocket-science in the event you do not need sufficient factual advice to found your own notions and arguments on. Deciding on the most suitable article is hence very important. There are various essay writing style which students must use while writing narrative papers.
The Little-Known Secrets to Factual Essay Topics
Choice of the methodology is dependent upon the character of research difficulty. Research methodology ought to be applicable to make gathered data applicable to reach objectives of their undertaking. The procedure for translation is referred to as mathematical modelling.