Remember that you are required to cite your sources for paraphrases and direct quotes. For more information on MLA Style, APA style, Chicago Style, ASA Style, CSE Style, and I-Search Format, refer to our Gallaudet TIP Citations and Referenceslink.
Words that introduce Quotes or Paraphrases are basically three keys verbs:
- Neutral Verbs(here)
- Stronger Verbs(here)
- Inference Verbs(here)
Neutral Verbs: When used to introduce a quote, the following verbs basically mean "says"
Examples of Neutral Verbs
The authorsays. The authornotes. The authorbelieves. The authorobserves. The authorcomments. The authorrelates. The authordeclares. The authorremarks. The authordiscusses. The authorreports. The authorexplains. The authorreveals. The authorexpresses. The authorstates. The authormentions. The authoracknowledges. The authorsuggests. The authorthinks. The authorpoints out. The authorresponds. The authorshows. The authorconfirms.
- Dr. Billowsaysthat being exposed to television violence at a young age desensitizes children to violence in real life (author's last name p.##).
- As the authornotes, "In an ideal classroom, both gifted children and learning disabled children should feel challenged" (p.##).
- Burdowbelievesthat being able to write using proper English grammar is an important skill (author's last name p.##).
- Dr. Patelobservesthat "most people tend to respond well to hypnotherapy" (p. ##).
- We see this self doubt again in the second scene, when Agatha comments, "Oh, times like this I just don't know whether I am right or wrong, good or bad" (p. ##).
- Goeff then relatesthat his childhood was "the time he learned to live on less than bread alone" (p. ##).
- The author declares, "All people, rich or poor, should pay the same taxes to the government" (p. ##).
- Godfried remarks, "Ignorance is a skill learned by many of the greatest fools" (author's last name p.##).
- The article discusses the qualities of a good American housewife in the 1950s (author's last name p.##).
- After the war is over, the General reports that "It seemed a useless battle to fight even from the start" (p.##).
- Danelli explains, "All mammals have hair" (p.##).
- The author reveals his true feelings with his ironic remark that we should "just resort to cannibalism to defeat world hunger" (p. ##).
- Forton expresses disapproval of the American welfare system (author's last name, year, p. ##).
- The author states that "More than fifty percent of all marriages end in divorce" (p. ##).
- He also mentions, "Many children grow up feeling responsible for their parents' mistakes" (p. ##).
- Jones acknowledges that although the divorce rate is increasing, most young children still dream of getting married (author's last name, year, p. ##).
- The author suggests that we hone our English skills before venturing into the work force (author's last name, year, p. ##).
- The author thinks that the recent weather has been too hot (author's last name, year, p. ##).
- Folsh points out that there were hundreds of people from varying backgrounds at the convention (author's last name, year, p. ##).
- Julia Hertz responded to allegations that her company was aware of the faulty tires on their cars (author's last name, year, p. ##).
- His research shows that 7% of Americans suffer from Social Anxiety Disorder (author's last name, year, p. ##).
- Jostin's research confirmed his earlier hypothesis: mice really are smarter than rats (author's last, year, name p. ##).
Stronger Verbs: These verbs indicate that there is some kind of argument, and that the quote shows either support of or disagreement with one side of the argument.
Examples of Stronger Verbs
The author agrees . . .The author rejects. The author argues. The author compares. (the two studies)The author asserts.The author admits.The author cautions.The author disputes. The author emphasizes. The author contends. The author insists. The author denies. The author maintains. The author refutes. The author claims. The author endorses.
- Despite criticism, Johnston agrees that smoking should be banned in all public places (author's last name p.##).
- The author argues that "subjecting non-smokers to toxic second-hand smoke is not only unfair, but a violation of their right to a safe environment" (p.##).
- Vick asserts that "cigarette smoke is unpleasant, and dangerous" (p.##).
- The author cautions that "people who subject themselves to smoky bars night after night could develop illnesses such as emphysema or lung cancer" (p.##).
- Rosentrhaw emphasizes that "second-hand smoke can kill" (p.##).
- Still, tobacco company executives insist that they "were not fully aware of the long term damages caused by smoking" when they launched their nationwide advertising campaign (author's last name p.##).
- Though bar owners disagree, Johnston maintains that banning smoking in all public places will not negatively affect bar business (author's last name p.##).
- Jefferson claims that banning smoking in public places will hurt America's economy (author's last name p.##).
- Johnson refutes allegations that his personal finances have been in trouble for the past five years (author's last name, year, p. ##).
- Whiley rejects the idea that the earth could have been formed by a massive explosion in space (author's last name, year, p. ##).
- Lucci compares the house prices in Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia (author's last name, year, p. ##).
- Although they have stopped short of admitting that smoking causes cancer in humans, tobacco companies have admitted that "smoking causes cancer in laboratory rats" (p. ##).
- For years, local residents have been disputing the plans to build a new highway right through the center of town (author's last name, year, p. ##).
- Residents contend that the new highway will lower property values (author's last name, year, p. ##).
- The Department of Transportation denies claims that the new bridge will damage the fragile ecosystem of the Potomac River (author's last name, year, p. ##).
- Joley endorses the bridge, saying "our goal is to make this city more accessible to those who live outside of it" (p. ##).
Inference Verbs: These verbs indicate that there is some kind of argument, and that the quote shows either support of or disagreement with one side of the argument.
Examples of Inference Verbs
The author implies.The author suggests.The author thinks.
- By calling them ignorant, the author implies that they were unschooled and narrow minded (author's last name p.##).
- Her preoccupation with her looks suggests that she is too superficial to make her a believable character (author's last name p.##).
- Based on his research, we can assume Hatfield thinks that our treatment of our environment has been careless (author's last name p.##).
One phrase that is often used to introduce a quotation is:
According to the author, . . .
- According to the author, children with ADD have a shorter attention span than children without ADD (author's last name, year, p. ##).
This handout provides examples and description about writing papers in literature. It discusses research topics, how to begin to research, how to use information, and formatting.
Contributors:Mark Dollar, Purdue OWL
Last Edited: 2017-10-25 10:18:45
What about MLA format?
All research papers on literature use MLA format, as it is the universal citation method for the field of literary studies. Whenever you use a primary or secondary source, whether you are quoting or paraphrasing, you will make parenthetical citations in the MLA format [Ex. (Smith 67).] Your Works Cited list will be the last page of your essay. Consult the OWL handout on MLA for further instructions.
Note, however, the following minor things about MLA format:
- Titles of books, plays, or works published singularly (not anthologized) should be italicised unless it is a handwritten document, in which case underlining is acceptable. (Ex. Hamlet, Great Expectations)
- Titles of poems, short stories, or works published in an anthology will have quotation marks around them. (Ex. "Ode to a Nightingale," "The Cask of Amontillado")
- All pages in your essay should have your last name the page number in the top right hand corner. (Ex. Jones 12)
If you're using Microsoft Word, you can easily include your name and page number on each page by following the these steps:
- Open "View" (on the top menu).
- Open "Header and Footer." (A box will appear at the top of the page you're on. And a "Header and Footer" menu box will also appear).
- Click on the "align right" button at the top of the screen. (If you're not sure which button it is, hold the mouse over the buttons and a small window should pop up telling you which button you're on.)
- Type in your last name and a space.
- Click on the "#" button which is located on the "Header and Footer" menu box. It will insert the appropriate page number.
- Click "Close" on the "Header and Footer" window.
That's all you need to do. Word will automatically insert your name and the page number on every page of your document.
What else should I remember?
- Don't leave a quote or paraphrase by itself-you must introduce it, explain it, and show how it relates to your thesis.
- Block format all quotations of more than four lines.
- When you quote brief passages of poetry, line and stanza divisions are shown as a slash (Ex. "Roses are red, / Violets are blue / You love me / And I like you").
- For more help, see the OWL handout on using quotes.