Research Paper On Special Education

We’ve compiled a list of scholarly and evidenced-based research articles for more in-depth investigation into special education topics. If you know of any free online articles that you think should be added to our list, please send a link to the article to

In addition, here are several websites that are excellent resources for more free articles:

ERIC, an online digital library of education research and information, is an excellent resource for academic articles.

NICHCY has a large database of articles and information on a wide range of disability-related topics, which you can browse and search.

The Best Evidence Encyclopedia (BEE) is a website devoted to providing free reviews of research-proven educational programs for students in grades K-12.

Promising Practices Network (PPN) has summaries and reviews of programs and practices that are proven to improve outcomes for children.

What Works Clearinghouse features reviews of the research on the programs, products, practices and policies in education.

IDEA 2004

Building the Legacy: A Training Curriculum on IDEA 2004
NICHCY, November 2010

Adaptations, Accommodations, Modifications

Assessment and Accommodations
Stephen D. Luke, Ed.D. and Amanda Schwartz, Ph.D.
Evidence for Education, Volume 2, Issue 1, 2007

Accommodation Strategies

Accommodations: Assisting Students with Disabilities—A Guide for Educators

Accommodations vs. Modifications: What’s the Difference?
Lindy Crawford, Ph.D.
National Center for Learning Disabilities

State Testing Accommodations: A Look at Their Value and Validity
Lindy Crawford, Ph.D.
National Center for Learning Disabilities


Interventions to Improve Executive Functioning and Working Memory in School-aged Children with AD(H)D: A Randomised Controlled Trial and Stepped-care Approach
Marthe LA van der Donk, Anne-Claire Hiemstra-Beernink, Ariane C Tjeenk-Kalff, Aryan V van der Leij and Ramón JL Lindauer
BMC Psychiatry, 2013; 13: 23.

An Efficacy Study of a Combined Parent and Teacher Management Training Programme for Children with ADHD
Monica Östberg, PhD and Ann-Margret Rydell
Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 2012 April; 66(2): 123–130.

Psychosocial Interventions to Improve the School Performance of Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Katy E. Tresco, PhD, Elizabeth K. Lefler, PhD and Thomas J. Power, PhD
Mind Brain, 2010 August; 1(2): 69–74.


Support, Inclusion, and Special Education Teachers’ Attitudes toward the Education of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Isabel R. Rodríguez, David Saldaña and F. Javier Moreno
Autism Research and Treatment, 2012; 2012: 259468.

Outcomes of Behavioral Intervention for Children with Autism in Mainstream Pre-School Settings
Sigmund Eldevik, Richard P. Hastings, Erik Jahr and J. Carl Hughes
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2012 February; 42(2): 210–220.

Examining the Quality of IEPs for Young Children with Autism
Lisa A. Ruble, John McGrew, Nancy Dalrymple and Lee Ann Jung
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2010 December; 40(12): 1459–1470.

State Infant/Toddler Program Policies for Eligibility and Services Provision for Young Children with Autism
Aubyn C. Stahmer and David S. Mandell
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 2007 January; 34(1): 29–37.

Teaching Empathy Skills to Children with Autism
Jessica A Schrandt
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2009 Spring; 42(1): 17–32.

Bullying Among Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Prevalence and Perception
Eeske van Roekel, Ron H. J. Scholte and Robert Didden
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 2010 January; 40(1): 63–73.

A Social Stories Intervention Package for Students with Autism in Inclusive Classroom Settings
Jeffrey M Chan and Mark F O’Reilly
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2008 Fall; 41(3): 405–409.

Functional Behavior Analysis/Behavior Management

Functional Assessment of Problem Behavior: Dispelling Myths, Overcoming Implementation Obstacles, and Developing New Lore
Gregory P Hanley
Behavior Analysis in Practice, 2012 Summer; 5(1): 54–72.

Function-Based Treatments for Escape-Maintained Problem Behavior: A Treatment-Selection Model for Practicing Behavior Analysts
Kaneen B. Geiger, M.S., James E. Carr, Ph.D., BCBA-D and Linda A. LeBlanc, Ph.D., BCBA-D
Behavior Analysis in Practice, 2010 Spring; 3(1): 22–32.

Classroom-Based Functional and Adjunctive Assessments: Proactive Approaches to Intervention Selection for Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Ruth A. Ervin, George J. DuPaul, Lee Kern, and Patrick C. Friman
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Spring 1998; 31(1): 65–78.

Comments on Functional Analysis Procedures for School-Based Behavior Problems
Alan Repp
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1994 Summer; 27(2): 409–411.

Teacher Use of Descriptive Analysis Data to Implement Interventions to Decrease Students’ Problem Behaviors
Joseph S. Lalli, Diane M. Browder, F. Charles Mace and D. Kirby Brown
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,1993 Summer; 26(2): 227–238

Functional Assessment, Curricular Revision, and Severe Behavior Problems
Glen Dunlap, Lee Kern- Dunlap, Shelley Clarke and Frank R. Robbins
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Number 2, Summer 1991 24:387-397.

Impact of the Good Behavior Game, a Universal Classroom–Based Behavior Intervention, on Young Adult Service Use for Problems with Emotions, Behavior, or Drugs or Alcohol
Jeanne Poduska, Sheppard Kellam, Wei Wang, C. Hendricks Brown, Nicholas Ialongo and Peter Toyinbo
Drug and Alcohol Depend 2008 June 1; 95 (Suppl 1): S29–S44.

Behavior Suite
NICHCY, December 2009

Individualized Education Program (IEP)

Introduction to Evidence-Based Practice
Colorado Department of Education-Exceptional Student Service Unit, November 2011

Evidence-Based Practices at School: A Guide for Parents
PACER Center, National and Regional Parent Technical Assistance Centers, 2011

Understanding the Basics of Standards-based Individual Education Program (IEP)
Wanda R. Bass, M.Ed.
Innovations and Perspectives, May 23, 2011, VCU Virginia’s Department of Education’s Training and Technical Assistance Center

Understanding the Standards-based Individualized Education Program (IEP)
National Center for Learning Disabilities, Advocacy Brief, 2008

Increasing Student Participation in IEP Meetings: Establishing the self-directed IEP as an evidenced-based practice
James E. Martin, Jamie L. van Dycke, W. Robert Christensen, Barbara A. Greene, J. Emmett Gardner and David L. Lovett
Council for Exceptional Children, Spring 2006; Volume 72; Issue 3

Student-Led IEP Meetings: Planning and Implementation Strategies
Becky Wilson Hawbaker
TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus, Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2007

Resources for Involving Students in Their IEP Process
Nicole M. Uphold, Allison R. Walker and David W. Test
TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus, Volume 3, Issue 4, March 2007

Family Members’ Involvement in the Initial Individual Education Program (IEP) Meeting and the IEP Process: Perceptions and Reactions
Helen Hammond, Lawrence Ingalls and Robert P. Trussell
International Journal about Parents in Education, 2008, Vol..2, No. 1: 35-48

Parents’ Experiences with the IEP Process: Considerations for Improving Practice
John W. Reiman, Ph.D., Laura Beck, MLIS, Teresa Coppola, B.A. and Anita Engiles, J.D.
Center for Appropriate Dispute Resolution in Special Education (CADRE), Eugene, Oregon, April 2010


Evidence-Based Practices in Secondary Transition
National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center

Evidence-Based Practices to Support Effective Transition for Young Adults with Disabilities Leaving High School
WestEd Center for Prevention & Early Intervention, FEDC Issue Brief, September 2011

Evidence-Based Practices and Predictors in Secondary Transition: What We Know and What We Still Need to Know
David W. Test, Catherine Fowler, Paula Kohler and Larry Kortering
National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center, April 2010
Click here to go to the Google page and download PDF.

Learning Disabilities

The Cognitive and Academic Profiles of Reading and Mathematics Learning Disabilities
Donald L. Compton, Lynn S. Fuchs, Douglas Fuchs, Warren Lambert and Carol Hamlett
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2012 Jan-Feb; 45(1): 79–95

Response to Intervention (RTI)

Comparison of Dual Discrepancy Criteria to Assess Response to Intervention
K. Burns and B. V. Senesac
Journal of School Psychology, 2005, 43, 393-406

The Validity of a Response-to-Instruction Paradigm to Identify Reading Disabilities: A longitudinal analysis of individual differences and contextual factors
L. P. Case, D. L. Speece and D. E. Molloy
School Psychology Review, 2003, 32: 557-582

Beginning Reading Instruction as Inoculation or Insulin: First-grade reading performance of strong responders to kindergarten intervention
M. D. Coyne, E. J. Kame’enui, D. C. Simmons and B. A. Harn
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2004, 37(2): 90- 104

The Prevention, Identification, and Cognitive Determinants of Math Difficulty
L. S. Fuchs, D. L. Compton, D. Fuchs, K. Paulsen, J. D. Bryant and C. L. Hamlett
Journal of Educational Psychology, 2005, 97(3): 493-513

Responding to Nonresponders: An experimental field trial of identification and intervention methods
K. L. McMaster, D. Fuchs, L. S. Fuchs and D. L. Compton
Exceptional Children, 2005, 71(4): 445-463…%29.pdf

Tiers of Intervention in Kindergarten through Third Grade
R.E. O’Connor, K. R. Harty and D. Fulmer
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2005, 38(6): 532-538

Increasing the Intensity of Intervention in Kindergarten and First Grade
R. O’Connor
Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 2000, 15(1): 43-54

Layers of Reading Intervention in Kindergarten through Third Grade: Changes in teaching and student outcomes
R. E. O’Connor, D. Fulmer, K. R. Harty and K. M. Bell
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2005, 38(5)

Classification in Context: An alternative approach to identifying early reading disability
D.L. Speece and L. P. Case
Journal of Educational Psychology, 2001, 93: 735-749

Individual Difference Variables that Predict Response to Training in Phonological Awareness
J. K. Torgesen and C. Davis
Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1996, 63: 1-21

Preventing Reading Failure in Young Children with Phonological Processing Disabilities: Group and individual responses to instruction
J. K. Torgesen, R. K. Wagner, C. A. Rashotte, E. Rose, P. Lindamood, T. Conway, and C. Garvan
Journal of Educational Psychology, 1999, 91(4): 579-593

Response to Instruction as a Means of Identifying Students with Reading/Learning Disabilities
S. Vaughn, S. Linan-Thompson and P. Hickman
Exceptional Children, 2003, 69(4): 391-409

Cognitive Profiles of Difficult-to-remediate and Readily Remediated Poor Readers: Early intervention as a vehicle for distinguishing between cognitive and experiential deficits as basic causes of specific reading disability
F. R. Vellutino, D. M. Scanlon, E. R. Sipay, S. G. Small, A. Pratt, R. Chen and M. B. Denckla
Journal of Educational Psychology, 1996, 88(4), 601-638.

Response to Intervention in Primary Grade Reading
What Works Clearinghouse, U.S. Department of Education, 2011

Best Practice for RTI: Small Group Instruction for Students Making Minimal Progress (Tier 3)
What Works Clearinghouse

Response to Intervention in Reading for English Language Learners
Sharon Vaughn and Alba Ortiz
Reading Rockets, 2010


The Common Core State Standards
NICHCY, November 2012

Co-Teaching: General and Special Education Teachers Working Together
NICHCY, October 2011, updated January 2013

Understanding Universal Design
NICHCY, September 2010

Effective Practices in the Classroom and School
NICHCY, October 2011

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