Motrice Scania 2 Assignments

1. Volkswagen – Volkswagen, shortened to VW, is a German automaker founded on May 28,1937 by the German Labour Front and headquartered in Wolfsburg. It is the flagship marque of the Volkswagen Group and is the largest automaker worldwide, Volkswagen is German for peoples car, and the companys current international advertising slogan is just Volkswagen. American English pronunciation is approximately volks wagon, for vehicle timeline tables, see, Volkswagen. Volkswagen was originally established in 1937 by the German Labour Front, in the early 1930s, the German auto industry was still largely composed of luxury models, and the average German could rarely afford anything more than a motorcycle. As a result, only one German out of 50 owned a car, seeking a potential new market, some car makers began independent peoples car projects – the Mercedes 170H, Adler AutoBahn, Steyr 55, and Hanomag 1. 3L, among others. The trend was not new, as Béla Barényi is credited with having conceived the design in the mid-1920s. Josef Ganz developed the Standard Superior, in Germany, the company Hanomag mass-produced the 2/10 PS Komissbrot, a small, cheap rear engined car, from 1925 to 1928. Also, in Czechoslovakia, the Hans Ledwinkas penned Tatra T77, Ferdinand Porsche, a well-known designer for high-end vehicles and race cars, had been trying for years to get a manufacturer interested in a small car suitable for a family. He felt the cars at the time were just stripped down big cars. He wanted his German citizens to have the access to a car as the Americans. The Peoples Car would be available to citizens of the Third Reich through a plan at 990 Reichsmark —about the price of a small motorcycle. Despite heavy lobbying in favor of one of the existing projects, thus, Hitler chose to sponsor an all-new, state-owned factory using Ferdinand Porsches design. The intention was that ordinary Germans would buy the car by means of a savings scheme, however, the entire project was financially unsound, and only the corruption and lack of accountability of the Nazi regime made it possible. Prototypes of the car called the KdF-Wagen, appeared from 1938 onwards, the car already had its distinctive round shape and air-cooled, flat-four, rear-mounted engine. The VW car was just one of many KdF programs, which included such as tours. The prefix Volks— was not just applied to cars, but also to products in Germany. On May 28,1937, Gesellschaft zur Vorbereitung des Deutschen Volkswagens mbH, more than a year later, on September 16,1938, it was renamed to Volkswagenwerk GmbH. Erwin Komenda, the longstanding Auto Union chief designer, part of Ferdinand Porsches hand-picked team, developed the car body of the prototype and it was one of the first cars designed with the aid of a wind tunnel—a method used for German aircraft design since the early 1920s

2. Carburetor – A carburetor, or carburettor, or carburator, or carburetter is a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine in the proper ratio for combustion. It is sometimes shortened to carb in North America or carby in Australia. To carburate or carburet is to blend the air and fuel or to equip with a carburetor for that purpose, carburetors have largely been supplanted in the automotive and, to a lesser extent, aviation industries by fuel injection. They are still common on engines for lawn mowers, rototillers. The word carburetor comes from the French carbure meaning carbide, carburer means to combine with carbon. In fuel chemistry, the term has the specific meaning of increasing the carbon content of a fluid by mixing it with a volatile hydrocarbon. The first carburetor was invented by Samuel Morey in 1826, a carburetor was invented by an Italian, Luigi De Cristoforis, in 1876. Another carburetor was developed by Enrico Bernardi at the University of Padua in 1882, for his Motrice Pia, a carburetor was among the early patents by Karl Benz as he developed internal combustion engines and their components. Early carburetors were the surface type, in which air is charged with fuel by being passed over the surface of gasoline. In 1885, Wilhelm Maybach and Gottlieb Daimler developed a float carburetor for their engine based on the atomizer nozzle, hungarian engineers János Csonka and Donát Bánki patented a carburetor for a stationary engine in 1893. Frederick William Lanchester of Birmingham, England, experimented with the wick carburetor in cars, in 1896, Frederick and his brother built the first gasoline-driven car in England, a single cylinder 5 hp internal combustion engine with chain drive. Unhappy with the performance and power, they re-built the engine the next year into a horizontally opposed version using his new wick carburetor design. Carburetors were the method of fuel delivery for most US-made gasoline-fueled engines up until the late 1980s. 1991, Jeep Grand Wagoneer with the AMC360 cu in V8 engine, low-cost commercial vans and 4WDs in Australia continued with carburetors even into the 2000s, the last being the Mitsubishi Express van in 2003. Elsewhere, certain Lada cars used carburetors until 2006, many motorcycles still use carburetors for simplicitys sake, since a carburetor does not require an electrical system to function. EEC legislation required all vehicles sold and produced in countries to have a catalytic converter after December 1992. This legislation had been in the pipeline for some time, with cars becoming available with catalytic converters or fuel injection from around 1990. Fords first fuel-injected car was the Ford Capri RS2600 in 1970, general Motors launched its first fuel-injected car around the same time, when began to introduce fuel-injected engines to its Vauxhall Cavalier/Opel Ascona range

3. Brand – A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes one seller’s product from those of others. Brands are used in business, marketing, and advertising, however, the term has been extended to mean a strategic personality for a product or company, so that ‘brand’ now suggests the values and promises that a consumer may perceive and buy into. Branding is a set of marketing and communication methods that help to distinguish a company from competitors, the key components that form a brands toolbox include a brand’s identity, brand communication, brand awareness, brand loyalty, and various branding strategies. Brand equity is the totality of a brands worth and is validated by assessing the effectiveness of these branding components. To reach such an invaluable brand prestige requires a commitment to a way of doing business. A corporation who exhibits a strong brand culture is dedicated on producing intangible outputs such as customer satisfaction, reduced price sensitivity and customer loyalty. A brand is in essence a promise to its customers that they can expect long-term security, when a customer is familiar with a brand or favours it incomparably to its competitors, this is when a corporation has reached a high level of brand equity. Many companies are beginning to understand there is often little to differentiate between products in the 21st century. Branding remains the last bastion for differentiation, in accounting, a brand defined as an intangible asset is often the most valuable asset on a corporation’s balance sheet. The word ‘brand’ is often used as a referring to the company that is strongly identified with a brand. Marque or make are often used to denote a brand of motor vehicle, a concept brand is a brand that is associated with an abstract concept, like breast cancer awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business. A commodity brand is a associated with a commodity. The word, brand, derives from Dutch brand meaning to burn and this product was developed at Dhosi Hill, an extinct volcano in northern India. Roman glassmakers branded their works, with Ennion being the most prominent, the Italians used brands in the form of watermarks on paper in the 13th century. Blind Stamps, hallmarks, and silver-makers marks are all types of brand, industrialization moved the production of many household items, such as soap, from local communities to centralized factories. When shipping their items, the factories would literally brand their logo or insignia on the barrels used, Bass & Company, the British brewery, claims their red-triangle brand as the worlds first trademark. Another example comes from Antiche Fornaci Giorgi in Italy, which has stamped or carved its bricks with the same proto-logo since 1731, cattle-branding has been used since Ancient Egypt. The term, maverick, originally meaning an un-branded calf, came from a Texas pioneer rancher, Sam Maverick, use of the word maverick spread among cowboys and came to apply to unbranded calves found wandering alone

4. Rolls-Royce Motors – Rolls-Royce Motors was a British car manufacturer, created in 1973 during the de-merger of the Rolls-Royce automotive business from the nationalised Rolls-Royce Limited. Vickers acquired the company in 1980 and sold it to Volkswagen in 1998, the original Rolls-Royce Limited had been nationalised in 1971 due to the financial collapse of the company, caused in part by the development of the RB211 jet engine. In 1973, the British government sold the Rolls-Royce car business to allow nationalised parent Rolls-Royce Limited to concentrate on jet engine manufacture, in 1980, Rolls-Royce Motors was acquired by Vickers. In 1998, Vickers plc decided to sell Rolls-Royce Motors, the leading contender seemed to be BMW, who already supplied internal combustion engines and other components for Rolls-Royce and Bentley cars. Their final offer of £340m was outbid by Volkswagen Group, who offered £430m, as part of the deal, Volkswagen Group acquired the historic Crewe factory, plus the rights to the Spirit of Ecstasy mascot and the shape of the radiator grille. However, the Rolls-Royce brand name and logo were controlled by aero-engine maker Rolls-Royce plc, the aero-engine maker decided to license the Rolls-Royce name and logo to BMW and not to Volkswagen, largely because the aero-engine maker had recently shared joint business ventures with BMW. BMW paid £40m to license the Rolls-Royce name and RR logo, Volkswagen Group had the rights to the mascot and grille but lacked rights to the Rolls-Royce name in order to build the cars, likewise BMW had the name but lacked rights to the grille and mascot. Volkswagen claimed that it only really wanted Bentley anyway as it was the higher volume brand, after negotiations, BMW and Volkswagen Group arrived at a solution. From 1998 to 2002, BMW would continue to supply engines for the cars and would allow Volkswagen use of the Rolls-Royce name, on 1 January 2003, only BMW would be able to name cars Rolls-Royce, and Volkswagen Groups former Rolls-Royce/Bentley division would build only cars called Bentley. Despite losing control of the Rolls-Royce marque to BMW, however, 1965–80 Silver Shadow—the first Rolls-Royce with a monocoque chassis, started with a 6.23 L V8 engine, later expanded to 6. The Bentley Continental coupés did not have Rolls-Royce equivalents, very expensive Rolls-Royce Phantom limousines were also produced. 1998–2002 Silver Seraph—This shared its design with the Bentley Arnage, which sold in greater numbers. 2000–02 Corniche V—This two-door convertible shared its design with the Bentley Azure and was the most expensive Rolls-Royce until the introduction of the 2003 Phantom

5. Porsche – F. Porsche AG, usually shortened to Porsche AG, is a German automobile manufacturer specializing in high-performance sports cars, SUVs and sedans. Porsche AG is headquartered in Stuttgart, and is owned by Volkswagen AG, Porsches current lineup includes the 718 Boxster/Cayman,911, Panamera, Macan and Cayenne. Ferdinand Porsche founded the company called Dr. Ing. h. c, F. Porsche GmbH in 1931, with main offices at Kronenstraße 24 in the centre of Stuttgart. Initially, the company offered motor vehicle development work and consulting, One of the first assignments the new company received was from the German government to design a car for the people, that is a Volkswagen. This resulted in the Volkswagen Beetle, one of the most successful car designs of all time, the Porsche 64 was developed in 1939 using many components from the Beetle. During World War II, Volkswagen production turned to the version of the Volkswagen Beetle, the Kübelwagen,52,000 produced. Porsche produced several designs for heavy tanks during the war, losing out to Henschel & Son in both contracts that ultimately led to the Tiger I and the Tiger II. However, not all work was wasted, as the chassis Porsche designed for the Tiger I was used as the base for the Elefant tank destroyer. Porsche also developed the Maus super-heavy tank in the stages of the war. At the end of World War II in 1945, the Volkswagen factory at KdF-Stadt fell to the British, Ferdinand lost his position as Chairman of the Board of Management of Volkswagen, and Ivan Hirst, a British Army Major, was put in charge of the factory. On 15 December of that year, Ferdinand was arrested for war crimes, during his 20-month imprisonment, Ferdinand Porsches son, Ferry Porsche, decided to build his own car, because he could not find an existing one that he wanted to buy. He also had to steer the company through some of its most difficult days until his fathers release in August 1947, the first models of what was to become the 356 were built in a small sawmill in Gmünd, Austria. The prototype car was shown to German auto dealers, and when pre-orders reached a set threshold, production was begun by Porsche Konstruktionen GesmbH founded by Ferry, many regard the 356 as the first Porsche simply because it was the first model sold by the fledgling company. After the production of 356 was taken over by the fathers Dr. Ing. h. c. In 1952, Porsche constructed a plant across the street from Reutter Karosserie, the main road in front of Werk 1. The 356 was road certified in 1948, Porsches company logo was based on the coat of arms of the Free Peoples State of Württemberg of former Weimar Germany, which had Stuttgart as its capital. The arms of Stuttgart was placed in the middle as an inescutcheon, on 30 January 1951, not long before the creation of Baden-Württemberg, Ferdinand Porsche died from complications following a stroke. The 356, however, had several stages, A, B, and C, while in production

6. Saab Automobile – Saab Automobile AB /ˈsɑːb/ was a manufacturer of automobiles that was founded in Sweden in 1945 when its parent company, SAAB AB, began a project to design a small automobile. The first production model, the Saab 92, was launched in 1949, in 1968 the parent company merged with Scania-Vabis, and ten years later the Saab 900 was launched, in time becoming Saabs best-selling model. In the mid-1980s the new Saab 9000 model also appeared, in 1989, the automobile division of Saab-Scania was restructured into an independent company, Saab Automobile AB. In 2010 GM sold Saab Automobile AB to the Dutch automobile manufacturer Spyker Cars N. V, on 13 June 2012, it was announced that a newly formed company called National Electric Vehicle Sweden had bought Saab Automobiles bankrupt estate. According to Saab United, the first NEVS Saab 9-3 drove off its line on 19 September 2013. NEVS lost its license to manufacture automobiles under the Saab name in the summer of 2014, Saab AB, Svenska Aeroplan Aktiebolaget, a Swedish aerospace and defence company, was created in 1937 in Linköping. The company had established in 1937 for the express purpose of building aircraft for the Swedish Air Force to protect the countrys neutrality as Europe moved closer to World War II. As the war drew towards a close and the market for fighter planes seemed to weaken, an automobile design project was started in 1945 with the internal name X9248. The design project became known as Project 92, the 92 being next in production sequence after the Saab 91. In 1948, a site in Trollhättan was converted to allow automobile assembly and the project moved there, along with the car manufacturing headquarters. The company made four prototypes named Ursaab or original Saab, numbered 92001 through to 92004, before designing the production model, the Saab 92 went into production in December 1949, selling 20,000 cars through the mid-1950s. The 92 was thoroughly redesigned and re-engineered in 1955, and was renamed the Saab 93, the cars engine gained a cylinder, going from two to three and its front fascia became the first to sport the first incarnation of Saabs trademark trapezoidal radiator grill. A wagon variant, the Saab 95, was added in 1959, the decade also saw Saabs first performance car, the Saab 94, the first of the Saab Sonetts. 1960 saw the major revision to the 92s platform in the Saab 96. The 96 was an important model for Saab, it was the first Saab to be exported out of Sweden. It proved very popular, selling nearly 550,000 examples, even more important to the companys fortunes was 1968s Saab 99. The 99 was the first all-new Saab in 19 years, and unlike its predecessors, the 99 had many innovations and features that would come to define Saabs for decades, wraparound windscreen, self-repairing bumpers, headlamp washers and side-impact door beams. The design by Sixten Sason was no less revolutionary than the underlying technology, in 1969, Saab AB merged with the Swedish commercial vehicle manufacturer Scania-Vabis AB to form Saab-Scania AB, under the Wallenberg family umbrella

7. Mercedes-Benz – Mercedes-Benz is a global automobile manufacturer and a division of the German company Daimler AG. The brand is known for vehicles, buses, coaches. The headquarters is in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, the slogan for the brand is the best or nothing and Mercedes-Benz was one of the top growing brands in 2014 with 18% growth. The Mercedes automobile was first marketed in 1901 by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, emil Jellinek, an Austrian automobile entrepreneur who worked with DMG created the trademark in 1902, naming the 1901 Mercedes 35 hp after his daughter Mercedes Jellinek. The first Mercedes-Benz brand name vehicles were produced in 1926, following the merger of Karl Benzs, on 28 June 1926, Mercedes Benz was formed with the merger of Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimlers two companies. Gottlieb Daimler was born on 17 March 1834 in Schorndorf, after training as a gunsmith and working in France, he attended the Polytechnic School in Stuttgart from 1857 to 1859. After completing various activities in France and England, he started work as a draftsman in Geislingen in 1862. At the end of 1863, he was appointed inspector in a machine tool factory in Reutlingen. Throughout the 1930s, Mercedes-Benz produced the 770 model, a car that was popular during Germanys Nazi period, Adolf Hitler was known to have driven these cars during his time in power, with bulletproof windshields. Most of the models have been sold at auctions to private buyers. One of them is currently on display at the War Museum in Ottawa, the pontiffs Popemobile has often been sourced from Mercedes-Benz. In 1944,46,000 forced laborers were used in Daimler-Benzs factories to bolster Nazi war efforts, the company later paid $12 million in reparations to the laborers families. Mercedes-Benz has introduced many technological and safety innovations that became common in other vehicles. Mercedes-Benz is one of the best-known and established automotive brands in the world, for information relating to the famous three-pointed star, see under the title Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft including the merger into Daimler-Benz. As part of the Daimler AG company, the Mercedes-Benz Cars division includes Mercedes-Benz, mercedes-AMG became a majority owned division of Mercedes-Benz in 1999. The company was integrated into DaimlerChrysler in 1999, and became Mercedes-Benz AMG beginning on 1 January 1999, Daimlers ultra-luxury brand Maybach was under Mercedes-Benz cars division until 2013, when the production stopped due to poor sales volumes. It now exists under the Mercedes-Maybach name, with the models being ultra-luxury versions of Mercedes cars, Daimler coorporates with BYD Auto to make and sell a battery-electric car called Denza in China. In 2016, Daimler announced plans to sell Mercedes-Benz branded all-electric battery cars in China, beside its native Germany, Mercedes-Benz vehicles are also manufactured or assembled in, Since its inception, Mercedes-Benz had maintained a reputation for its quality and durability

8. Toyota – Toyota Motor Corporation is a Japanese automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan. In March 2014, the corporation consisted of 338,875 employees worldwide and. As of 2016, Toyota is the worlds second-largest automotive manufacturer behind German Volkswagen Group, Toyota was the worlds first automobile manufacturer to produce more than 10 million vehicles per year which it has done since 2012, when it also reported the production of its 200-millionth vehicle. As of July 2014, Toyota was the largest listed company in Japan by market capitalization, Toyota is the worlds market leader in sales of hybrid electric vehicles, and one of the largest companies to encourage the mass-market adoption of hybrid vehicles across the globe. Cumulative global sales of Toyota and Lexus hybrid passenger car models achieved the 10 million milestone in January 2017 and its Prius family is the worlds top selling hybrid nameplate with over 6 million units sold worldwide as of January 2017. The company was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda in 1937, as a spinoff from his fathers company Toyota Industries to create automobiles. Three years earlier, in 1934, while still a department of Toyota Industries, it created its first product, the Type A engine, and, in 1936, its first passenger car, the Toyota AA. Toyota Motor Corporation produces vehicles under five brands, including the Toyota brand, Hino, Lexus, Ranz, TMC is part of the Toyota Group, one of the largest conglomerates in the world. Toyota is headquartered in Toyota City, Aichi, the main headquarters of Toyota is located in a 4-story building in Toyota. As of 2006, the office has the Toyopet Toyota logo. Vinod Jacob from The Hindu described the headquarters building as modest. In 2013, company head Akio Toyoda reported that it had difficulties retaining foreign employees at the due to the lack of amenities in the city. Its Tokyo office is located in Bunkyo, Tokyo and its Nagoya office is located in Nakamura-ku, Nagoya. In addition to manufacturing automobiles, Toyota provides financial services through its Toyota Financial Services division, since 1950, the two entities had existed as separate companies as a prerequisite for reconstruction in postwar Japan. Shoichiro Toyoda presided over Toyota Motor Sales in preparation for the consummation of the merger occurred in 1982. Shoichiro then succeeded his uncle Eiji as the President of the organization that then became known as Toyota Motor Corporation. Announced the appointment of board members, this was a first for the corporation. Additionally, Vice Chairman Takeshi Uchiyamada replaced Fujio Cho as chairman, Toyota is publicly traded on the Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Fukuoka, and Sapporo exchanges under company code TYO,7203

9. Suzuki – In 2014, Suzuki was thought to be the ninth biggest automaker by production worldwide. In addition, motorcycle is the third largest in the sales volume, outboard motor. In 1909, Michio Suzuki founded the Suzuki Loom Works in the small seacoast village of Hamamatsu, business boomed as Suzuki built weaving looms for Japans giant silk industry. In 1929, Michio Suzuki invented a new type of weaving machine, the companys first 30 years focused on the development and production of these machines. Despite the success of his looms, Suzuki believed that his company would benefit from diversification, based on consumer demand, he decided that building a small car would be the most practical new venture. The project began in 1937, and within two years Suzuki had completed several compact prototype cars and these first Suzuki motor vehicles were powered by a then-innovative, liquid-cooled, four-stroke, four-cylinder engine. It had a cast aluminum crankcase and gearbox and generated 13 horsepower from a displacement of less than 800cc, with the onset of World War II, production plans for Suzukis new vehicles were halted when the government declared civilian passenger cars a non-essential commodity. At the conclusion of the war, Suzuki went back to producing looms, Loom production was given a boost when the U. S. government approved the shipping of cotton to Japan. Suzukis fortunes brightened as orders began to increase from domestic textile manufacturers, but the joy was short-lived as the cotton market collapsed in 1951. Faced with this challenge, Suzuki returned to the production of motor vehicles. After the war, the Japanese had a great need for affordable, reliable personal transportation, a number of firms began offering clip-on gas-powered engines that could be attached to the typical bicycle. Suzukis first two-wheeled vehicle was a bicycle fitted with a motor called, designed to be inexpensive and simple to build and maintain, the 1952 Power Free had a 36 cc, one horsepower, two-stroke engine. The new double-sprocket gear system enabled the rider to either pedal with the engine assisting, pedal without engine assist, or simply disconnect the pedals, the patent office of the new democratic government granted Suzuki a financial subsidy to continue research in motorcycle engineering. By 1954, Suzuki was producing 6,000 motorcycles per month and had changed its name to Suzuki Motor Co. Ltd. Following the success of its first motorcycles, Suzuki created a more successful automobile. The Suzulight sold with front-wheel drive, four-wheel independent suspension and rack-and-pinion steering, Volkswagen held a 19. 9% non-controlling shareholding in Suzuki between 2009 and 2015. An international arbitration court ordered Volkswagen to sell the back to Suzuki. Suzuki paid $3. 8bn to complete the stock buy-back in September 2015, Michio Suzuki was intent on making better, more user-friendly looms and, for 30 years his focus was on the development of these machines

10. Yamaha – It is one of the constituents of Nikkei 225 and is the worlds largest piano manufacturing company. Yamaha was established in 1887 as a piano and reed organ manufacturer by Torakusu Yamaha as Nippon Gakki Company, Limited in Hamamatsu, the companys origins as a musical instrument manufacturer are still reflected today in the groups logo—a trio of interlocking tuning forks. The YA-1, of which 125 were built in the first year of production, was named in honour of the founder and it was a 125cc, single cylinder, two-stroke, street bike patterned after the German DKW RT125. In 1955, the success of the YA-1 resulted in the founding of Yamaha Motor Co. Ltd, in 1989, Yamaha shipped the worlds first CD recorder. Yamaha purchased Sequential Circuits in 1988 and it bought a majority stake of competitor Korg in 1987, which was bought out by Korg in 1993. In the late 1990s, Yamaha released a series a portable battery operated keyboards under the PSS, in 2002, Yamaha closed down its archery product business that was started in 1959. Six archers in five different Olympic Games won gold medals using their products and it acquired German audio software manufacturers Steinberg in January 2005, from Pinnacle Systems. K. Ltd, the UK piano sales & manufacturing arm was unaffected, on December 20,2007, Yamaha made an agreement with the Austrian Bank BAWAG P. S. K. Group BAWAG to purchase all the shares of Bösendorfer, intended to place in early 2008. Yamaha intends to continue manufacturing at the Bösendorfer facilities in Austria, the acquisition of Bösendorfer was announced after the NAMM Show in Los Angeles, on January 28,2008. As of February 1,2008, Bösendorfer Klavierfabrik GmbH operates as a subsidiary of Yamaha Corp, Yamaha Corporation is also widely known for their music teaching programme that began in the 1950s. Yamaha electronic have proven to be successful, popular, and respected products, for example, the Yamaha YPG-625 was given the award Keyboard of the Year and Product of the Year in 2007 from The Music and Sound Retailer magazine. Other noteworthy Yamaha electronics include the SHS-10 Keytar, a keytar which offered MIDI output features normally found on much more expensive keyboards. Other companies in the Yamaha group include, Bösendorfer Klavierfabrik GmbH, Vienna, Yamaha Motor Company Yamaha Fine Technologies Co. Ltd. Yamaha Golf Cart Company Yamaha Livingtec Corporation Yamaha Metanix Corporation Yamaha Music Communications Co. Ltd, Yamaha Pro Audio Kandō is a Japanese word used by Yamaha to describe their corporate mission. Kandō in translation describes the sensation of profound excitement and gratification derived from experiencing supreme quality, some reasonable English synonyms are emotionally touching or emotionally moving. The Yamaha Music Foundation is an established in 1966 by the authority of the Japanese Ministry of Education for the purpose of promoting music education. It continued a program of music classes begun by Yamaha Corporation in 1954, Yamaha expanded into many diverse businesses and product groups

11. Radiator – Radiators are heat exchangers used to transfer thermal energy from one medium to another for the purpose of cooling and heating. The majority of radiators are constructed to function in automobiles, buildings, despite the name, most radiators transfer the bulk of their heat via convection instead of thermal radiation, though the term convector is used more narrowly, see radiation and convection, below. The Roman hypocaust, a type of radiator for building heating, was described in 15 AD. The heating radiator was invented by Franz San Galli, a Prussian-born Russian businessman living in St. Petersburg, in practice, the term radiator refers to any of a number of devices in which a liquid circulates through exposed pipes. The term convector refers to a class of devices in which the source of heat is not directly exposed, radiators are commonly used to heat buildings. To cool down the engine, a coolant is passed through the engine block, the hot coolant is then fed into the inlet tank of the radiator, from which it is distributed across the radiator core through tubes to another tank on the opposite end of the radiator. The fins then release the heat to the ambient air, fins are used to greatly increase the contact surface of the tubes to the air, thus increasing the exchange efficiency. The cooled coolant is fed back to the engine, and the cycle repeats, normally, the radiator does not reduce the temperature of the coolant back to ambient air temperature, but it is still sufficiently cooled to keep the engine from overheating. This coolant is usually water-based, with the addition of glycols to prevent freezing, however, the coolant may also be an oil. The first engines used thermosiphons to circulate the coolant, today, however, all, up to the 1980s, radiator cores were often made of copper and brass. Starting in the 1970s, use of aluminium increased, eventually taking over the vast majority of vehicular radiator applications, the main inducements for aluminium are reduced weight and cost. However, the cooling properties of Copper-Brass over Aluminium makes it preferential for high performance vehicles or stationary applications. In particular MW-class installations, copper-brass constructions are still dominant, since air has a lower heat capacity and density than liquid coolants, a fairly large volume flow rate must be blown through the radiator core to capture the heat from the coolant. Radiators often have one or more fans that blow air through the radiator, to save fan power consumption in vehicles, radiators are often behind the grille at the front end of a vehicle. Ram air can give a portion or all of the cooling air flow when the coolant temperature remains below the systems designed maximum temperature. As electronic devices become smaller, the problem of dispersing waste heat becomes more difficult, tiny radiators known as heat sinks are used to convey heat from the electronic components into a cooling air stream. Radiators are found as components of some spacecraft and these radiators work by radiating heat energy away as light because in the vacuum of space neither convection nor conduction can work to transfer heat away. On the International Space Station these can be seen clearly as large white panels attached to the main truss and they can be found on both manned and unmanned craft

12. Delaunay-Belleville – Automobiles Delaunay-Belleville was a French luxury automobile manufacturer at Saint-Denis, France, north of Paris. At the beginning of the 20th century they were among the most prestigious cars produced in the world, julien Belleville had been a maker of marine boilers from around 1850. Louis Delaunay joined the firm in 1867 and married Delaunays daughter, changing his name to Delaunay-Belleville, S. A. des Automobiles Delaunay-Belleville was formed in 1903 by Louis Delaunay and Marius Barbarou. Barbarous family owned the boiler making company St. Denis in Belleville, Barbarou, then 28, had experience working for Clément, Lorraine-Dietrich and Benz and was responsible for design and styling, including the trademark round grille shell. The first car was exhibited at the 1904 Paris Salon, the company started with three models, all fours, a live axled 16 hp and a 24 hp and 40 hp model, both chain-driven. These were likely the first automobiles to have pressure-lubricated camshafts, the bodies were attached with just four bolts, and the brakes were water-cooled, from a 2 imp gal reservoir. Delaunay-Belleville were a prestige marque, and one of the leaders, from the outset. Other royal owners included King George I of Greece and King Alphonso XIII of Spain, the first French car maker to offer a six-cylinder engine, Delaunay-Bellevilles 70 hp became available only in 1909, and then only in small numbers, remaining in limited production until 1912. This model came to be known as the Type SMT, or Sa Majesté le Tsar, because Nicholas purchased one of the last 70s built. He also ordered another in 1909, the demand for a silent starter, operable from the seat, became known as a Barbey starter. Like most prestige marques, the cars were sold as bare chassis, between 1906 and 1914, British imports were mainly bodied by Shinnie Brothers, a Burlington subsidiary, in Aberdeen, then shipped to London for sale. After Barbarou resigned, Delaunay-Belleville quality began to slip, in 1919, the company offered a 10 hp four-cylinder, undoubtedly the most expensive voiturette on the market, as well as a 15.9 hp four, the P4B, in 1922. French anarchist gangster Jules Bonnot used a Delaunay-Belleville for his first hold-up, new four-cylinder overhead valve 14/40 and 16/60 models appeared in 1926, and the prewar 20 hp and 10 hp six-cylinder models continued to be produced until 1927. The last gasps were the 3,180 cc 21 hp six of 1928, in 1931, Continental engines, imported from the U. S. were offered, being quieter and cheaper. By the late 1920s, Delaunay-Belleville had lost its prestige, and converted to truck, in 1936 the previously separate car company was merged with the Delaunay Belleville parent. Production of the Delaunay-Belleville RI-6 continued through the late 1930s and was revived after the Second World War, however, the business was in decline, anyone buying a RI-6 in the 1940s would have done so in the knowledge after-sales service might disappear soon. Six cars were completed in 1947 and this sank to four during the first part of 1948, the company continued to advertise new cars for sale until 1950, but the factory was sold to Robert de Rovin in 1948 and thereafter used to make cyclecars. Delahaye, Famous on Road and Race Track, in Ward, Ian, World of Automobiles, Volume 5, pp. 525–526

13. Volvo – The Volvo Group is a Swedish multinational manufacturing company headquartered in Gothenburg. While its core activity is the production, distribution and sale of trucks, buses and construction equipment, Volvo also supplies marine and industrial drive systems, the companies still share the Volvo logo and co-operate in running the Volvo Museum. Volvo means I roll in Latin, conjugated from volvere, in reference to ball bearings, the brand name Volvo was originally registered as a trademark in May 1911 with the intention to be used for a new series of SKF ball bearings. This idea was used for a short period and SKF decided to simply use SKF as the trademark for all its bearing products. In 1924, Assar Gabrielsson, an SKF sales manager, and a KTH Royal Institute of Technology educated engineer Gustav Larson and their vision was to build cars that could withstand the rigors of the countrys rough roads and cold temperatures. AB Volvo began activities on 10 August 1926, after one year of preparations involving the production of ten prototypes the firm was ready to commence the car-manufacturing business within the SKF group. AB Volvo was introduced at the Stockholm Stock Exchange in 1935, Volvo was delisted from NASDAQ in June 2007, but remains listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange. The Volvo Group has its origin in 1927, when the first Volvo car rolled off the line at the factory in Gothenburg. Only 280 cars were built that year, the first truck, the Series 1, debuted in January 1928, as an immediate success and attracted attention outside the country. In 1930, Volvo sold 639 cars, and the export of trucks to Europe started soon after, pentaverken, who had manufactured engines for Volvo, was acquired in 1935, providing a secure supply of engines and entry into the marine engine market. The first bus, named B1, was launched in 1934, in 1963, Volvo opened the Volvo Halifax Assembly plant, the first assembly plant in the companys history outside of Sweden in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. In 1991, Volvo Group participated in joint venture with Japanese automaker Mitsubishi Motors, the operation, branded NedCar, began producing the first generation Mitsubishi Carisma alongside the Volvo S40/V40 in 1996. In 1999, the European Union blocked a merger with Scania AB, in January of that same year, Volvo Group sold its car division Volvo Car Corporation to Ford Motor Company for $6.45 billion. The division was placed within Fords Premier Automotive Group alongside Jaguar, Land Rover, the Volvo T5 petrol engine was used in the Ford Focus ST and RS performance models, and Volvos satellite navigation system was used on certain Aston Martin Vanquish, DB9 and V8 Vantage models. In November 1999, Volvo Group purchased a 5% stake in Mitsubishi Motors, Ford sold the Volvo Car Corporation in 2010 to Geely Automobile of China for $1.8 billion. The move followed Fords 2007 sale of Aston Martin, and 2008 sale of Jaguar Land Rover, Volvo Group sold its stake in Mitsubishi Motors back to Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in 2001. Renault Véhicules Industriels was sold to Volvo during January 2001, Renault became AB Volvos biggest shareholder with a 19. 9% stake as part of the deal. Renault increased its shareholding to 21. 7% by 2010, AB Volvo acquired 13% of the shares in the Japanese truck manufacturer UD Trucks from Nissan Motor Co Ltd during 2006, becoming a major shareholder

14. BMW – Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, usually known under its abbreviation BMW, is a German luxury vehicle, motorcycle, and engine manufacturing company founded in 1916. It is one of the luxury automakers in the world. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index, headquartered in Munich, Bavaria, BMW owns Mini cars and is the parent company of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. BMW was established as a business entity following a restructuring of the Rapp Motorenwerke aircraft manufacturing firm in 1912 named Aerowerke Gustav Otto, after the end of World War I in 1918, BMW was forced to cease aircraft-engine production by the terms of the Versailles Armistice Treaty. The company consequently shifted to production as the restrictions of the treaty started to be lifted in 1923. BMWs first significant aircraft engine, and commercial product of any sort, was the BMW IIIa inline-six liquid-cooled engine of 1918, known for good fuel economy, with German rearmament in the 1930s, the company again began producing aircraft engines for the Luftwaffe. The factory in Munich made ample use of forced labour, foreign civilians, prisoners of war, the few Me 262 A-1b test examples built used the more developed version of the 003 jet, recording an official top speed of 800 km/h. The first-ever four-engine jet aircraft flown were the sixth and eighth prototypes of the Arado Ar 234 jet reconnaissance-bomber. Through 1944 the 003s reliability improved, making it a power plant for air frame designs competing for the Jägernotprogramms light fighter production contract. Which was won by the Heinkel He 162 Spatz design, the BMW003 aviation turbojet was also under consideration as the basic starting point for a pioneering turboshaft powerplant for German armored fighting vehicles in 1944–45, as the GT101. Towards the end of the Third Reich, BMW developed some military aircraft projects for the Luftwaffe, the BMW Strahlbomber, the BMW Schnellbomber and the BMW Strahljäger, but none of them were built. By the year 1958, the division of BMW was in financial difficulties. It was decided to carry on by trying to cash in on the current economy car boom exploited so successfully by German ex-aircraft manufacturers such as Messerschmitt, BMW bought the rights to manufacture the Italian Iso Isetta. BMWs version of the cars were to be powered by a modified form of BMWs motorcycle engine. This was moderately successful and helped the company get back on its feet, since 1959, the controlling majority shareholder of the BMW Aktiengesellschaft has been the Quandt family, which owns about 46% of the stock. The rest is in public float, BMW acquired the Hans Glas company based in Dingolfing, Germany, in 1966. Glas vehicles were badged as BMW until the company was fully absorbed. However, this factory was outmoded and BMWs biggest immediate gain was, according to themselves, the Glas factories continued to build a limited number of their existing models, while adding the manufacture of BMW front and rear axles until they could be closer incorporated into BMW

15. Alfa Romeo – Alfa Romeo Automobiles S. p. A. is an Italian car manufacturer, founded as A. L. F. A. on 24 June 1910, in Milan. The brand is known for sporty vehicles and has involved in car racing since 1911. The company was owned by Italian state holding company Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale between 1932 and 1986, when it became a part of the Fiat group, in February 2007, the Alfa Romeo brand became Alfa Romeo Automobiles S. p. A. A subsidiary of Fiat Group Automobiles, now Fiat Chrysler Automobiles Italy, the company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, with Italian investors. In late 1909, the Italian Darracq cars were selling slowly, on 24 June 1910, a new company was founded named A. L. F. A. Initially still in partnership with Darracq, the first non-Darracq car produced by the company was the 191024 HP, designed by Merosi. Ventured into motor racing, with drivers Franchini and Ronzoni competing in the 1911 Targa Florio with two 24-hp models. In August 1915, the company came under the direction of Neapolitan entrepreneur Nicola Romeo, in 1920, the name of the company was changed to Alfa Romeo with the Torpedo 20-30 HP the first car to be so badged. In 1921, the Banca Italiana di Sconto, which backed the Ing, Nicola Romeo & Co, went broke and the government needed to support the industrial companies involved, among which was Alfa Romeo, through the Consorzio per Sovvenzioni sui Valori Industriali. In 1925, the activities were separated from the Romeo company. In 1933, the ownership was reorganized under the banner of the Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale by Benito Mussolinis government. The company struggled to return to profitability after the Second World War, in 1954, it developed the Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine, which would remain in production until 1994. Alfa Romeo has competed successfully in Grand Prix motor racing, Formula One, sportscar racing, touring car racing and it has competed both as a constructor and an engine supplier, via works entries, and private entries. The first racing car was made in 1913, three years after the foundation of the company, and Alfa Romeo won the world championship for Grand Prix cars in 1925. The company gained a name in motorsport, which gave a sporty image to the whole marque. Enzo Ferrari founded the Scuderia Ferrari racing team in 1929 as an Alfa Romeo racing team and it holds the worlds title of the most wins of any marque in the world. The companys name is a combination of the name, A. L. F. A. and the last name of entrepreneur Nicola Romeo. The company that became Alfa Romeo was founded as Società Anonima Italiana Darracq in 1906 by the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq, One of them, Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan, became chairman of the SAID in 1909

16. Mercedes-Benz W194 – The Mercedes-Benz W194 was the Mercedes-Benz entry for the 1952 Sportscar racing season, its first after World War II. It was succeeded by the Mercedes-Benz W196 on the track, the racing W194300 SL was built around a mere 140-150 pound welded aluminum tube spaceframe chassis to offset its relatively underpowered carbureted engine. Designed by Daimler-Benzs chief developing engineer, Rudolf Uhlenhaut, the metal skeleton saved weight while still providing a level of strength. Since it enveloped the passenger compartment traditional doors were impossible, giving birth to the models distinctive gull-wing arrangement, aerodynamics played an important role in the 2497 pound cars speed. Unlike many cars of the 1950s, steering was relatively precise, however, the rear swing axle, jointed only at the differential, not at the wheels themselves, could be treacherous at high speeds or on imperfect roads due to extreme changes in camber. The enormous fuel tank capacity also caused a difference in handling depending on the quantity of fuel on board. In 1952, the W194 scored overall wins at the 24 Hours of Le Mans, in Bern-Bremgarten, in the race of the Eifelrennen at the Nürburgring. It also managed second and fourth places at its first outing, low weight and low aerodynamic drag made the W194 fast enough to be competitive in endurance races. The result was an icon, the 1954 Mercedes-Benz 300 SL Gullwing, the 300 SL is credited with changing the companys image in America from a manufacturer of solid but staid luxury automobiles to one capable of rendering high-performance sports cars. The W194 is regarded by some as the most important post-World War II Mercedes-Benz made and it is unknown how many of the original 10 W194s manufactured remain. Only one never raced, Chassis #00002, which served as a parts and it has been fully restored by a Mercedes-Benz team and though not for sale received multiple offers of $15 million USD in 2012. Mercedes-Benz W196 Mercedes-Benz 300 SLR Mercedes-Benz SL-Class

17. Endurance racing (motorsport) – Endurance racing is a form of motorsport racing which is meant to test the durability of equipment and endurance of participants. Teams of multiple drivers attempt to cover a distance in a single event. Endurance races can be run either to cover a set distance in laps as quickly as possible, one of the more common lengths of endurance races has been running for 1,000 kilometres, or roughly six hours. Longer races can run for 1,000 miles,12 hours, teams can consist of anywhere from two to four drivers per event, which is dependent on the drivers endurance abilities, length of the race, or even the rules for each event. Coppa Florio was an Italian car race started in 1900, and renamed in 1905 when Vincenzo Florio offered the initial 50000 Lira, the Brescia race visited the route Brescia-Cremona-Mantova-Brescia. In 1908, the race used the Circuito di Bologna, Bologna-Castelfranco Emilia-SantAgata Bolognese-San Giovanni in Persiceto-Bologna, since 1914 most of the Coppa Florio was co-organized with the Targa Florio near Palermo, Sicilia, running four or five laps,108 km each. The Mille Miglia was an endurance race which took place in Italy 24 times from 1927 to 1957. The worlds first organized 24-hour automobile race event was held on a 1-mile oval track at Driving Park, Columbus, beginning on the afternoon of July 3, four cars from Frayer-Miller, Pope-Toledo, Peerless and White Steamer raced for a $500 silver trophy. The winning Pope-Toledo car covered 828.5 miles, a protest was filed by the Frayer-Miller and Peerless teams, alleging the Pope-Toledo was not owned by the driver, instead sent from the factory with an engine built for racing. The first 24-hour race to place at a dedicated motorsport venue was at Brooklands. This incurred the wrath of local residents and would lead to the Double Twelve race and this format meant the race took place for 12 hours each between 8am to 8pm and between it, the cars were locked up overnight to prevent maintenance work from being performed on them. The 2001 Dakar Rally saw competitors cover a distance of 10,739 kilometres with a time of 70 hours over 20 days with three classes of cars, motorbikes, and trucks. The 1992 Paris–Cape Town Rally covered a distance of 12,427 km, the 1994 edition saw competitors return to Paris, for a distance of 13,379 km. The Expedition Trophy, first held in 2005, runs from Murmansk to Vladivostok, the 1908 New York to Paris Race covered a distance of over 16,000 km, taking 169 days from February 12 to July 30. The various endurance formats were appealing to manufacturers, not only as alternatives to the expense of Grand Prix racing, in automobile endurance racing, three events have come to form a Triple Crown. They are considered three of the most challenging endurance races over the decades, the Rolex 24 at Daytona,12 Hours of Sebring, hans Herrmann was the first in 1970 to win the three races, and Timo Bernhard the most recent. No driver has won the three events in the year, Hurley Haywood and Al Holbert have won the three races at least twice each. Bold on year indicate at which race the driver achieved his Triple Crown, the FIA World Endurance Championship is an international sports car racing series organized by both the Automobile Club de lOuest and the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile

18. Fuel injection – Fuel injection is the introduction of fuel in an internal combustion engine, most commonly automotive engines, by the means of an injector. All diesel engines use fuel injection by design, petrol engines can use gasoline direct injection, where the fuel is directly delivered into the combustion chamber, or indirect injection where the fuel is mixed with air before the intake stroke. On petrol engines, fuel injection replaced carburetors from the 1980s onward, the functional objectives for fuel injection systems can vary. All share the task of supplying fuel to the combustion process. Carburetors have the potential to atomize fuel better, Fuel injection also dispenses with the need for a separate mechanical choke, which on carburetor-equipped vehicles must be adjusted as the engine warms up to normal temperature. Furthermore, on spark ignition engines, fuel injection has the advantage of being able to facilitate stratified combustion which have not been possible with carburetors, Fuel injection generally increases engine fuel efficiency. With the improved cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution of multi-point fuel injection, less fuel is needed for the power output. Exhaust emissions are cleaner because the precise and accurate fuel metering reduces the concentration of toxic combustion byproducts leaving the engine. The more consistent and predictable composition of the exhaust makes emissions control devices such as catalytic converters more effective, herbert Akroyd Stuart developed the first device with a design similar to modern fuel injection, using a jerk pump to meter out fuel oil at high pressure to an injector. This system was used on the engine and was adapted and improved by Bosch. Fuel injection was in commercial use in diesel engines by the mid-1920s. Another early use of direct injection was on the Hesselman engine invented by Swedish engineer Jonas Hesselman in 1925. Hesselman engines use the ultra lean-burn principle, fuel is injected toward the end of the compression stroke and they are often started on gasoline and then switched to diesel or kerosene. Direct fuel injection was used in notable World War II aero-engines such as the Junkers Jumo 210, the Daimler-Benz DB601, the BMW801, German direct injection petrol engines used injection systems developed by Bosch from their diesel injection systems. Later versions of the Rolls-Royce Merlin and Wright R-3350 used single point fuel injection, due to the wartime relationship between Germany and Japan, Mitsubishi also had two radial aircraft engines utilizing fuel injection, the Mitsubishi Kinsei and the Mitsubishi Kasei. Alfa Romeo tested one of the first electronic systems in Alfa Romeo 6C2500 with Ala spessa body in 1940 Mille Miglia. The engine had six electrically operated injectors and were fed by a semi-high-pressure circulating fuel pump system, all diesel engines have fuel injected into the combustion chamber. The invention of mechanical injection for gasoline-fueled aviation engines was by the French inventor of the V8 engine configuration, Leon Levavasseur in 1902, the first post-World War I example of direct gasoline injection was on the Hesselman engine invented by Swedish engineer Jonas Hesselman in 1925

19. Fiat Automobiles – Fiat Automobiles S. p. A. is the largest automobile manufacturer in Italy, a subsidiary of FCA Italy S. p. A. which is part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. Fiat Automobiles S. p. A. was formed in January 2007 when Fiat reorganized its automobile business, Fiats main market is Europe, mainly focused in Italy. Historically successful in citycars and supermini sector, currently Fiat has a range of models focused on two segments. Fiat does not currently offer any large family car, nor an executive car - these market segments have, to some extent been covered by the Lancia and Alfa Romeo brands, which Fiat also owns. Fiats share of the European market shrank from 9.4 per cent in 2000 to 5.8 per cent in the summer of 2004, at this point Sergio Marchionne was appointed as Fiats chief executive. By March 2009 their market share had expanded to 9.1 per cent, Fiats built their five-story Lingotto plant in 1915 through 1918, at the time it was Europes largest car manufacturing plant. Later the Mirafiori plant was built, also in Turin, to prepare for production of the all-new Fiat 128, Fiat opened their Rivalta plant in October 1968. Until the 128 entered production, the plant was used to build versions of the 850 and 124 as well as parts for the Fiat Dino. Fiats 2014 range of car engines comprised eleven units, eight petrols. The second generation Punto was a seller in the UK after its October 1999 launch. The original Fiat 500 had been one of the few competitors for the iconic Mini during its 1960s heyday. Fiat has invested for a time in South America, mainly in Brazil. They built their first Brazilian car plant in the Greater Belo Horizonte city of Betim in 1973, recently a brand new model developed in Brazil has been launched, the Fiat Uno. Other European models are imported to Brazil, Fiat 500. Some others are still in production, Punto, Idea, Bravo, Fiat has a long history in the United States. In 1908, the Fiat Automobile Co. was established in the country and a plant in Poughkeepsie, N. Y. began producing Fiats a year later, like the Fiat 60 HP and the Fiat 16-20 HP. These luxury cars were produced long before Chrysler Corp. was formed in 1925 from older manufacturers that were acquired by Walter P. Chrysler, the New Jersey factory was closed when the U. S. entered World War I in 1917. Fiat returned to North America in the 1950s, selling the original 500, Fiat 600 Multipla, Fiat 1100, Fiat 1200, for example the Fiat 124 Sport Spider and the Fiat X1/9

20. Audi – Audi is a German automobile manufacturer that designs, engineers, produces, markets and distributes luxury vehicles. Audi is a member of the Volkswagen Group and has its roots at Ingolstadt, Bavaria, audi-branded vehicles are produced in nine production facilities worldwide. The modern era of Audi essentially began in the 1960s when Auto Union was acquired by Volkswagen from Daimler-Benz. After relaunching the Audi brand with the 1965 introduction of the Audi F103 series, Volkswagen merged Auto Union with NSU Motorenwerke in 1969, the company name is based on the Latin translation of the surname of the founder, August Horch. Horch, meaning listen in German, becomes audi in Latin, the four rings of the Audi logo each represent one of four car companies that banded together to create Audis predecessor company, Auto Union. Audis slogan is Vorsprung durch Technik, meaning Advancement through Technology, however, since 2007 Audi USA has used the slogan Truth in Engineering. Audi, along with BMW and Mercedes are among the luxury automobile brands in the world. Originally in 1885, automobile company Wanderer was established, later becoming a branch of Audi AG, another company, NSU, which also later merged into Audi, was founded during this time, and later supplied the chassis for Gottlieb Daimlers four-wheeler. On 14 November 1899, August Horch established the company A. Horch & Cie. in the Ehrenfeld district of Cologne, three years later in 1902 he moved with his company to Reichenbach im Vogtland. On May, 10th,1904 he founded the August Horch & Cie. Motorwagenwerke AG, after troubles with Horch chief financial officer, August Horch left Motorwagenwerke and founded in Zwickau on 16 July 1909, his second company, the August Horch Automobilwerke GmbH. His former partners sued him for trademark infringement, the German Reichsgericht in Leipzig, eventually determined that the Horch brand belonged to his former company. Since August Horch was prohibited from using Horch as a name in his new car business, he called a meeting with close business friends, Paul and Franz Fikentscher from Zwickau. At the apartment of Franz Fikentscher, they discussed how to come up with a new name for the company, during this meeting, Franzs son was quietly studying Latin in a corner of the room. Horch. in German means Hark. or hear, which is Audi in the imperative form of audire – to listen – in Latin. The idea was accepted by everyone attending the meeting. On 25 April 1910 the Audi Automobilwerke GmbH Zwickau was entered in the register of Zwickau registration court. The first Audi automobile, the Audi Type A 10/22 hp Sport-Phaeton, was produced in the same year, followed by the successor Type B 10/28PS in the same year. Audi started with a 2,612 cc inline-four engine model Type A, followed by a 3,564 cc model and these cars were successful even in sporting events

21. Ford Motor Company – The Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16,1903, the company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford also owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer, Troller, and Australian performance car manufacturer FPV, in the past, it has also produced tractors and automotive components. Ford owns an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom, and it also has a number of joint-ventures, one in China, one in Taiwan, one in Thailand, one in Turkey, and one in Russia. It is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family, Fords former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 respectively, were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010, in 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and the Middle East since 1938. During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, Ford is the second-largest U. S. -based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe, Ford is the eighth-ranked overall American-based company in the 2010 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2009 of $118.3 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants, the company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights. The Ford Motor Company was launched in a factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John. During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue and later its factory on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on car, assembling it from parts made mostly by supplier companies contracting for Ford. Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company and it has been in continuous family control for over 100 years and is one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. The first gasoline powered automobile had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Carl Benz, between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, and S. Hundreds or a few thousand of most of these were sold per year, in 1908, Ford introduced the mass-produced Model T, which totalled millions sold over nearly 20 years. In 1927, Ford replaced the T with the Model A, Ford launched the first low-priced car with a V8 engine in 1932. In an attempt to compete with General Motors mid-priced Pontiac, Oldsmobile, Henry Ford purchased the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, in order to compete with such brands as Cadillac and Packard for the luxury segment of the automobile market. The creation of a laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan in 1951, doing unfettered basic research

22. Opel – Adam Opel AG is a German automobile manufacturer headquartered in Rüsselsheim, Hesse, Germany. It is a subsidiary of General Motors but is soon to be part of the French automotive company Groupe PSA, Opel traces its roots to a sewing machine manufacturer founded by Adam Opel in 1862. The company began manufacturing bicycles in 1886 and produced its first automobile in 1899, Opel became a share-limited company in 1929, General Motors took a majority stake in Opel that same year. General Motors assumed full control in 1931, and today Adam Opel AG is an owned subsidiary of General Motors Company. Although Adam Opel AG continues to be a company, shares of the company are not publicly listed. Adam Opel AG is the parent company of General Motors UK Limited, better known as Vauxhall, during the 1970s and 1980s, Opel and Vauxhall ranges were rationalised into one consistent range across Europe. Opel withdrew from China, where it had a network of 22 dealers, furthermore, GM is responsible to pay about US$400 million annually for 15 years to fund the existing German and U. K. pension plans. The company was founded in Rüsselsheim, Hessen, Germany, on January 21,1862, at the beginning, Opel just produced sewing machines in a cowshed in Rüsselsheim. Above all, his success was based on his perfectly customized sewing machines, because of the quick growth of his business, in 1888, the production was relocated from the cowshed to a more spacious building in Rüsselsheim. Encouraged by success, Adam Opel launched a new product in 1886, He began to sell high-wheel bicycles, besides, Opels two sons participated in high-wheel bicycle races, thus promoting this means of transportation. Therefore, the production of high-wheel bicycles soon exceeded the production of sewing machines, at the time of Opels death in 1895, he was the leader in both markets. These cars were made up of Opel bodies mounted on Darracq chassis, the company first showed cars of its own design at the 1902 Hamburg Motor Show, and started manufacturing them in 1906, with Opel Darracq production being discontinued in 1907. In 1909, the Opel 4/8 PS model, known as the Doktorwagen was produced and its reliability and robustness were greatly appreciated by physicians, who drove a lot to see their patients, back when hard-surfaced roads were still rare. The Doktorwagen sold for only 3,950 marks, about half as much as the models of its day. In 1911, the factory was virtually destroyed by fire. In the early 1920s, Opel became the first German car manufacturer to incorporate a mass-production assembly line in the building of their automobiles, in 1924, they used their assembly line to produce a new open two-seater called the Laubfrosch. The Laubfrosch was finished exclusively in green lacquer. The car sold for an expensive 4,500 marks, but by the 1930s, this type of vehicle would cost a mere 1,990 marks – due in part to the assembly line, but also due to the skyrocketing demand for cars

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